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Essay Importance Of English In Pakistan

Essay About English Language

English is one of the most important languages in the world. It can even be said to be the single most important language. Other languages are important too, but not for the same reasons as English is important. English is important because it is the only language that truly links the whole world together. The other languages may be important for their local values and culture. English can be used as a language in any part of the world. This is because at least a few people in each locality would know the language. Though these people might not have the same accent as others, the language at least will be understandable Pakistan and Importance of English Language

In countries like Pakistan, with people of various cultures live, the languages of each part of the country also differ. English can be the only link as people in each place will not be able to learn all the other languages to communicate with the people. English bridges this gap and connects the people. When a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business or even as a tourist, the languages may differ. In these conditions, English is the language that helps people to deal with the situation. It is like a universal language.

The presence of English as a universal language assumes importance in the fact that more and more people leave their countries not only for the sake of business and pleasure, but also for studying. Education has increased the role of English. People who go to another country to study can only have English as their medium of study. This is because the individual will not be able to learn a subject in the local language of the country. This again reinforces the fact that the English language is very important. All correspondences between offices in different countries and also between political leaders of various countries are in English.

This linking factor also tells of the importance of the English language in this essay. In spite of the growth of the Internet in various languages, English is the mainstay of the Internet users. This is the language in which most of the information and websites are available. It is very difficult to translate each and every relevant webpage into the language of various countries. With Internet becoming very important in education, English language is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English as a language is emphasized. The future of English as a language is very secure. The day is not far when this language will become the single language of the world like we have a single currency.

IMPORTANCE OF ENGLİSH:

In today’s global world, the importance of English can not be denied and ignored since English is the most common language spoken everwhere. With the help of developing technology, English has been playing a major role in many sectors including medicine, engineering, and education, which, in my opinion, is the most important arena where English is needed. Particularly, as a developing country, Turkey needs to make use of this world-wide spoken language in order to prove its international power. This can merely be based on the efficiency of tertiary education. Consequently, English should be the medium of instruction at universities in Turkey for the following three reasons: finding a high-quality job, communicating with the international world, and accessing scientific sources in the student’s major field.

The first reason for why English should be the medium of instruction at universities in Turkey is that it helps students find a high quality jobs for students to find. In business life, the most important common language is obviously English. In addition to this, especially, high-quality jobs need good understanding ability and speaking in English. Therefore, companies can easily open out to other countries, and these companies generally employ graduates whose English is fluent and orderly. For example, the student who is graduated from a university which takes English as a major language will find a better or high-quality job than other students who don’t know English adequately.

In other words, the student who knows English is able to be more efficient in his job because he can use the information from foreign sources and web sites. He can prepare his assigments and tasks with the help of these information. Therefore, undoubtedly, his managers would like his effort or prepared projects. In addition, many high-quality jobs are related with international communication and world-wide data sharing. University graduates who are in a international company and business are needed to communicate with foreign workers.

For instance, if their managers want them to share the company’s data, they are expected to know English. Moreover, they will even have to go business trip for their company. Absolutely, all of these depend on speaking English;as a result, new graduates have to know English in order to get a high-quality job, and the others, who don’t know English, may have lack of communication and be paid less money.

The second and the most important reason, for English to be the medium of instruction in the Turkish higher education system is that it enables students to communicate with the international world. In these days, in my opinion, the most important thing for both university students and graduates is to follow the development in tecnology. For this reason, they have to learn common language. Certainly, they should not lose their interest on communicating with the world. However, some of the university students can’t obtain English education in their university. Unfortunately, these people may lose their communication with worldwide subjects and language essay topics.

In short, they will not communicate foreign people. To prevent these people from lacking of speaking English, universities’ administration will provide English education to them. In addition, university students can use some specific hardware and software of computers with their English to communicate others. For example, the Internet, which, in my opinion, is the largest source in the world, based on English knowledge and information. Also, most of the softwares such as “Windows”, “Microsoft Office”, “Internet Explorer” are firstly written in English, and these programs are the basic vital things for communication over computer. That is to say, even in a little resarch about something, they need these programs and the Internet to find necessary sources and information.

The last reason for favouring English as the medium of instruction of Turkish universities is that it faclitates accessing information. All of the students have to do some projects or homeworks which are related with their field during the university education. In these projects or homeworks, they have to find some information which is connected with their subject.

They find sources from English web sites and books, but they have to replace these data to their projects. During these process, if they know English, they will not come across with any difficulty, but if they don’t know, even they may not use these data. As a result, the student who knows English will be more successful at his/her project. For this reason, to obstruct possible inequity between students, management of universities should accept English as a second language in order to provide accessing information to the students. In short, university students need to know English to access information.

All in all, the education in universities should be done with English for three reasons. First, students who know English are able to find their favourite job related with their field. Second, they can communicate with others internationally. Third, as a major language in universities, English makes accessing information easy for students. In my opinion, internationally, people need one common language. For many years, English has been the common wold-wide language, and it will be in the future. For this reason, if you want to follow trends, new gadgets and technology, modernization of the developing world, you have to know English whatever age you are in.

Role of English Language in Globalization

The Power of English Language

Without the powerful language English, connecting nations all over the world would have been something impossible. Communication is very crucial in any field, whether it is business, medicine, transport, technology, trade or marketing. English is the language globally accepted and known by all. The role of English language in globalizing people all over the world cannot be just expressed in words; the influence of this commanding language is quite vast and diverse to define. If you consider business, diplomacy, or politics, there should be proper gelling between nations.

Deep understanding is very much important in any field. Without proper communication it is not possible in whichever way it may be. The language you speak does play a big role in conveying and popularizing your skills and requirements. Around 380 million consider English as the first language, two-third of them prefer it as the second. In addition, billions are in the learning process and many are exposed to this unflinching language. Various predictions reveal that by 2050, half the world population will be proficient in English language. Hence it’s relevant how powerful the language is to bring the nations
together. Whether high or low, it is the language accepted universally. “The World Empire by Other Means: The Triumph of English.” (The Economist, 2001). The power of English language

The English language stands out from any other language if you consider the nation as a whole. People know its significance and that is why the language is taught as the basic language in any country. Internationally speaking, it will be really hard to thrive in this world without knowing English. When you speak of globalization, the first language that comes to mind is English. In order to create an ethically responsible, equitable and tolerant world, the English language plays a crucial role. You may take the case of any field. In business, outsourcing and communication with clients and other delegates are very important to exchange and share your thoughts and innovation. This is how business grows.

Likewise it is also very important to maintain peace and tranquility between nations. If at all an issue arises, only through peaceful talks and conferences the problems can be discussed and sorted. English is the best to make it easier. Many Asian and African countries even accepted it as the standard language to communicate with each other. (Belcher. D, 1994). The language has great impact on sharing different traditions and cultures of various nations, enhancing better knowledge to know each other. You learn more about the various traditions, culture, and customs of various nations all over the world through travel and study. For both of these to become reality effective communication is a must.

The language English enhances a lot in bringing people all over the world together. The internet also plays a big role in promoting English as the standard language understood by all. Through various social networking sites people connect to each other from anywhere around the world, mostly through English. This is because the language is accepted all over the world. English is also very essential for air traffic controls and airline crews. The touch of this powerful language is very evident in every field of study. Even in science and research, the English language is very essential. (The Convention on International Civil Aviation, Chicago Convention, 1944)

English is the International Language and is one of the most popular and most spoken in the technology world. We need to know English language in order to study any science subject or any computer language. We need to know English to communicate effectively too many developed countries. English is very much important in our life…it is necessary in each and every field. If we know English we never feel tongue tide in front of others. It’s a widely spoken language.

People take pride in speaking English .if we don’t know English, we will leg behind the other. English is a need of hour. Today we can’t deny the importance of English in our life.To anyone who lives in an English speaking country, it is of vital importance. Language is always very important, because it is the means of communication. If you cannot speak the language of a place, it will be very difficult to communicate with the people. And so it is an absolute neccesity.We communicate with others every day.

Weather we just say ‘hello’ or have a long conversation, or weather we give or follow instructions, or weather at home or at the shop or in the workplace. Communication is a tool for everyday life-Everyone uses it every day. And language makes it a whole lot easier, so everyone learns to speak their native language. And English is the most widely spoken language in the world, and if you know how to speak it, it will be an invaluable tool of communication. You can develop your knowledge for betterment of your knowledge. As long as you educate yourself, you will come across many new things. There is no end for learning

A language is a systematic means of communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code we all use to express ourselves and communicate to others. It is a communication by word of mouth. It is the mental faculty or power of vocal communication. It is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds, gestures, signs or marks. Any means of communicating ideas, specifically, human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a language. This is a system for communication. A language is the written and spoken methods of combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people.

Language, so far as we know, is something specific to humans, that is to say it is the basic capacity that distinguishes humans from all other living
beings. Language therefore remains potentially a communicative medium capable of expressing ideas and concepts as well as moods, feelings and attitudes.

A set of linguists who based their assumptions of language on psychology made claims that language is nothing but ‘habit formation’. According to them, language is learnt through use, through practice. In their view, ‘the more one is exposed to the use of language, the better one learns’.

Written languages use symbols (characters) to build words. The entire set of words is the language’s vocabulary. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the language’s syntax and grammar. The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is defined by the language’s semantics.

The latest and the most advanced discoveries and inventions in science and technology are being made in the universities located in the United States of America where English language is the means of scientific discourse.

The historical circumstances of India (having been ruled by the British for over two centuries) have given the Indians an easy access to mastering English language, and innumerable opportunities for advancement in the field of science and technology. Many Indians have become so skilled in English language and have won many international awards for creative and comparative literatures during the last few years. Sometime ago, an Indian author, Arundhati Roy, won the prestigious booker prize for her book “The God of Small Things”. Her book sold lakhs of copies all over the globe.

Over the years, English language has become one of our principal assets in getting a global leadership for books written by Indian authors and for films made by Indians in English language. A famous Indian movie maker Shekhar Kapoor’s film “Elizabeth” has got several nominations for Oscar Awards. It does not require any further argument to establish the advantage English language has brought to us at the international level.

English language comes to our aid in our commercial transactions throughout the globe. English is the language of the latest business management in the world and Indian proficiency in English has brought laurels to many Indian business managers. English is a means not only for international commerce; it has become increasingly essential for inter-state commerce and communication.

In India, people going from North to South for education or business mostly communicate in English, which has become a link language. Keeping this in mind, the Parliament has also recognized English as an official language in addition to Hindi. All the facts of history and developments in present day India underline the continued importance of learning English in addition to vernaculars.

Some of the states of India are witnessing popular increase in public demand for teaching of English language from the primary classes. Realizing the importance, recently, the Minister of Indian Railways, Laloo Prasad Yadav, demands teaching of English language in schools. The great demand for admission in English medium schools throughout the country is a testimony to the attraction of English to the people of India. Many of the leaders, who denounce English, send their own children to English medium schools. Many of the schools in the country have English as the sole or additional medium of instruction.

A language attracts people because of the wealth of literature and knowledge enshrined in it. English poses no danger to Indian languages. The Indian languages are vibrant and are developing by the contributions of great minds using them as their vehicle of expression. English is available to us as a historical heritage in addition to our own language. We must make the best use of English to develop ourselves culturally and materially so that we can compete with the best in the world of mind and matter. English language is our window to the world.

English language is one tool to establish our viewpoint. We can learn from others experience. We can check the theories of foreigners against our
experience. We can reject the untenable and accept the tenable. We can also propagate our theories among the international audience and readers.

We can make use of English to promote our worldview and spiritual heritage throughout the globe. Swami Vivekananda established the greatness of Indian view of religion at the world conference of religions in Chicago in 1893. He addressed the gathering in impressive English. Many spiritual gurus have since converted thousands of English people to our spirituality by expressing their thought and ideas in masterful English. English has thus become an effective means of promoting Indian view of life, and strengthening our cultural identity in the world.

When William Caxton set up his printing press in London (1477) the new hybrid language (vernacular English mixed with courtly French and scholarly Latin) became increasingly standardized, and by 1611, when the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible was published, the educated English of London had become the core of what is now called Standard English. By the time of Johnson’s dictionary (1755) and the American Declaration of Independence (1776), English was international and recognizable as the language we use today.

The Orthography of English was more or less established by 1650 and, in England in particular, a form of standard educated speech, known as Received Pronunciation (RP) spread from the major public schools in the 19th century. This accent was adopted in the early 20th century by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for its announcers and readers, and is variously known as RP, BBC English, Oxford English, and the King’s or Queen’s English.

Generally, Standard English today does not depend on accent but rather on shared educational experience, mainly of the printed language. Present-day English is an immensely varied language, having absorbed material from many other tongues. It is spoken by more than 300 million native speakers, and between 400 and 800 million foreign users. It is the official language of air transport and shipping; the leading language of science, technology, computers, and commerce; and a major medium of education, publishing, and international negotiation. For this reason, scholars frequently refer to its
latest phase as World English.

English is one of the most important languages in the world. It can even be said o be the single most important language. Yes, other languages are important too, but not for the same reasons as English is important. English is important because it is, maybe, the only language that truly links the whole world together. If not for English, the whole world may not be as united as it is today. The other languages may be important for their local values and culture.

English can be used as a language in any part of the world. This is because at least a few people in each locality would know the language. Though these people might not have the same accent as others, the language at least will be understandable. There are various reasons for the importance of English language. They are listed below.

1. Travel: When a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business or even as a tourist, the languages may differ. In these conditions, English is the language that helps people to deal with the situation. It is like a universal language.

2. Same country: In countries like India, where the land is so vast with people of various cultures live, the languages of each part of the country also differ. Under the circumstances, English can be the only link as people in each place will not be able to learn all the other languages to communicate with the people. English bridges this gap and connects the people.

3. Education / Studies: The presence of English as a universal language assumes importance in the fact that more and more people leave their countries not only for the sake of business and pleasure, but also for studying. Education has increased the role of English. People who go to another country to study can only have English as their medium of study. This is because the individual will not be able to learn a subject in the local language of the country. This again reinforces the fact that English
language is very important.

4. Correspondence: All correspondences between offices in different countries and also between political leaders of various countries is in English. This linking factor also tells of the importance of English language.

5. Internet: In spite of the growth of Internet in various languages, English is the mainstay of the Internet users. This is the language in which most of the information and websites are available. It is very difficult to translate each and every relevant webpage into the language of various countries. With Internet becoming very important in E commerce and also in education, English language is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English as a language is emphasized.

The future of English as a language is very secure. In this era of consolidation and trying to unify various aspects of life, it will not be long before English can be made as a single language of the world like the single currency and the union of various nations.

Works Cited

  1. Bonfiglio, Thomas Paul. Why Is English Literature?: Language and Letters for the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
  2. “ESOE Blog | 4 Reasons Why Learning English Is so Important.” Reasons Why Learning English Is Important, www.elc-eastbourne.co.uk/blog/4-reasons-why-learning-english-is-so-important/.
  3. Machan, Tim William. What Is English?: and Why Should We Care? Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2013.
  4. Swierzbin, Bonnie. “Demonstrativesâ Special Place in the English Reference System: Why Thatâs Important for English Language Learners.” Language and Linguistics Compass, vol. 4, no. 10, 2010, pp. 987–1000. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2010.00248.x.

This article is about the dialect of the English language. For English people of Pakistani descent, see British Pakistanis.

Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.[1] It was first so recognised and designated in the 1970s and 1980s.[2] Pakistani English (PE) is slightly different in respect to vocabulary, syntax, accent, spellings of some words and other features. 27% of the Pakistani population can speak English as a first language. However, over 58% can speak it as a second language, making it home to the third-largest number of English speakers in the world.[3]

History[edit]

Although British rule in India lasted for almost two hundred years, the areas which lie in what is now Pakistan were amongst the last to be annexed: Sindh in 1843, Punjab (which initially included the North-West Frontier Province) in 1849, and parts of Baluchistan, including Quetta and the outer regions in 1879, while the rest of the Baluchistan region became a princely state within the British Indian Empire. As a result, English had less time to become part of local culture though it did become part of elite culture as it was used in elite schools and in higher education, as in the rest of British India.[4] The colonial policies which made English a marker of elite status and the language of power—being used in such domains of power as the civil service, the officer corps of the armed forces, the higher judiciary, universities, prestigious newspapers, radio and entertainment—was due to British policies[5]:22–58 and the continuation of these policies by Pakistani governments.[4]:288–323 In 1947 upon Pakistan's establishment, English became the de facto official language, a position which was formalised in the Constitution of Pakistan of 1973. Together with Urdu, the two languages are concurrently the official languages of the country. English language continues as the language of power and is also the language with the maximum cultural capital of any language used in Pakistan.[6] It remains much in demand in higher education in Pakistan.[7]

Relationship with Indian English[edit]

See also: Indian English

Pakistani English (PE) shares many similarities with Indian English, but since the independence of Pakistan, there have been some very obvious differences. Rahman argues that PE is an interference variety of English created by the use of the features of Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and other languages spoken in Pakistan. He further divides PE into Anglicised English, which is very similar to the speech and writing of the speakers of British Standard English (BSE), acrolect PE, which is used by Pakistanis educated in English-medium schools, mesolectal PE, which is used by ordinary, Urdu-educated Pakistanis and basilect PE, which is used by people of little formal education, such as guides and waiters.[8]

Words and expressions of PE have been noted by a number of scholars,[9] including unique idioms and colloquial expressions as well as accents.[10] Foreign companies find accent neutralisation easier[10] in Pakistan than in India. However, like Indian English, Pakistani English has preserved many phrases that are now considered antiquated in Britain.[11]

Use in Pakistan[edit]

Urdu and English are Pakistan's official languages. But all government documents, street signs, many shop signs, business contracts and other activities use English. The language of the courts is also English.[12]

English is taught to all school-level Pakistani students, and in many cases the medium of instruction is also in English. Although there are also many Pakistani medium local schools, either with an emphasis of English as a second language or bilingually medium Pakistani Urdu which are all taught in both Pakistani Urdu and English on across all subjects and courses especially in standardised tests.[13] At college and university level, all instructions are in English and also bilingual as well.[14]

Pakistan boasts a large English language press and (more recently) media. All of Pakistan's major dailies are published in or have an edition in English, while DAWN News was a major English Language News Channel, before 15 May 2010 when it switched to its language to Urdu, Express 24/7 was another important English news channel, now defunct. Code-switching (the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation) is common in Pakistan and almost all conversations in whatever language have a significant English component. The language of pleading in all courts of Pakistan is also English. The tutorial language in all universities is English and also bilingually (both Urdu and English together and sometimes both of medium of instructions are mixed and combined due to the importance of bilingualism )

Literature[edit]

Main article: Pakistani English literature

Grammar[edit]

The role of English within the complex multilingual society of Pakistan is far from straightforward: it is used across the country by speakers with various degrees of proficiency; the grammar and phraseology may mimic that of the speaker's first language. While Pakistani speakers of English use idioms peculiar to their homeland (often literal translations of words and phrases from their native languages), this is far less common in proficient speakers, and grammar tends to be quite close to that of Standard English but exhibiting some features of American English.

Phonology[edit]

Pakistani English phonology follows that of British English. It may be rhotic or non-rhotic. Rahman provides a broad introduction to the phonology of Pakistani English.[8]:21–40

Influences[edit]

Pakistani English is heavily influenced by Pakistan's languages as well as the English of other nations. Many words or terms from Urdu, such as 'cummerbund', have entered the global language and are also found in Pakistan. In addition the area which is now Pakistan was home to the largest garrisons of the British Indian Army (such as Rawalpindi and Peshawar) and this, combined with the post-partition influence of the Pakistan Military, has ensured that many military terms have entered the local jargon.[8]:76–78

The type of English taught (and preferred) is British English. The heavy influence and penetration of American culture through television, films and other media has brought in great influences of American English.

Vocabulary and colloquialisms[edit]

Pakistani English contains many unique terms,[citation needed] as well as terms which are utilised somewhat differently in Pakistan.[dubious– discuss]. For instance, "chips" is used for potato chips as well as for French fries and "lemon" is used for both lime and lemon.[8]:69–71

  • "Uncle / Aunty" – Respectful way of addressing anyone who is significantly older than oneself: "Uncle, please give way"
  • Use of double and triple for numbers occurring twice or three times in succession, especially for a phone number: for example, a phone number 2233344 would be pronounced as double two, triple three, double four; however the phone number 2222555 would be pronounced as double two double two triple five
  • Shopper means a shopping bag, rather than a person who is shopping, the latter is referred to as a customer
  • Petrol Pump— This term used to refers Gas Station
  • Opening/closing an object refers to turning something on or off; this is due to the verbs for to open and to close being the same as the verbs for to turn on and to turn off in Urdu and other Pakistani languages.
  • Light Gone— This refers to the electric power outage from the electric supply company.
  • Number — Often used in place of "marks" in an exam (used as both singular and plural without s while speaking in mixed English-Urdu).
  • His/her meter has turned or -is high means that the person has lost his/her temper. Usually used for a sudden outburst, one which is construed as unreasonable.
  • Got no lift—received no attention or assistance from someone.
  • In-Charge— a casual as well as formal title given to unit, group or division heads.
  • Same to same— an expression to indicate something is exactly the same to some other thing.
  • On parade—being at work or at a set activity. Usually (though not always) in the context of starting something for the first time. For example, I have been hired by the company, on parade from next Monday.
  • Out of station—out of town
  • Become a direct Sergeant—be promoted out of turn/ given responsibility and authority very early. Often in the context that a person is out of his/her depth. For example, no wonder that team has failed so badly, leader was a direct Sergeant. Usually "Sergeant" is replaced by "Havildar" the equivalent rank in the Pakistan Army. Also used for upwardly mobile, ambitious or nouveau riche.
  • Miss is used to address or refer to female teachers, whatever their marital status, e.g. Yes, I have done my homework, Miss. Less commonly used to refer to women colleagues or subordinates.
  • Madam is used to address and refer to females in positions of authority, usually a superior, e.g. madam has ordered me to get the figures for last years sales.Can also be used as a noun, e.g. she is the madam of that department meaning she is the head of the department, without it being derogatory.
  • Sir is used for a male superior, often combined with their name or used as a noun. E.g. Is Sir in? or Sir Raza wants to see you in his office as soon as possible.
  • Well left—avoided artfully, often a tricky situation; from cricket, the term "well left" is applied when a batsman chose not to play a potentially dangerous delivery, e.g. I well left that offer, it could have caused many problems.
  • Threw/received a googly—an unexpected situation arose, a person was surprised, often unpleasantly, e.g. had just settled down and then got the googly about the transfer. From googly, a delivery in cricket.
  • Yorker—a sudden, dangerous and potentially devastating situation; similar use to googly, but usually has a certain amount of danger attached to it. My mother's heart attack while we were hiking in the mountains hit like a yorker, we were far from any medical help. Also used in a similar manner; bouncer. All three terms are derived from actual cricket deliveries, cricket being a popular sport in the country.
  • Hit middle stump—did an action in such a manner that there is little room for further action, or a decisive blow, e.g. really hit middle stump last year on that contract. Also derived from cricket.
  • Master Sahib, contracted to Ma'Sahib—used to refer to a master craftsman. The term is now however used more frequently to refer to tailors and carpenters.
  • Drinking a cigarette/cigar—smoking a cigarette. This is due to the verbs for smoking being the same as the verbs for drinking in Urdu and other Pakistani languages.
  • Elder – used as a comparative adjective in the sense of older. For example, "I am elder to you", instead of "I am older than you."
  • Evenas well/also/too: "Even I didn't know how to do it." This usage of even is borrowed from native grammatical structure.
  • Graduation – completion of a bachelor's degree (as in the UK): "I did my graduation at Presidency College" ("I earned my bachelor's degree at Presidency College"), whereas in the United States it refers to completion of Highschool, Master's or PhD as well.[dubious– discuss]
  • Paininghurting would be correct in Standard American and British: "My head is paining."
  • Shirtings and suitings – the process of making such garments; a suffix in names of shops specialising in men's formal/business wear.
  • Timings – hours of operation; scheduled time, such as office timings or train timings, as opposed to the standard usage such as "The timing of his ball delivery is very good."
  • Gentry – generalised term for social class — not specifically 'high social class'. The use of 'good', 'bad', 'high' and 'low' prefixed to 'gentry' is common.
  • mutton – goat meat instead of sheep meat.

Words unique to (i.e. not generally well-known outside South Asia) and/or popular in Pakistan include those in the following by no means exhaustive list:

  • batchmate or batch-mate (Not classmate, but a schoolmate of the same grade)
  • compass box for a box holding mathematical instruments like compasses, divider, scale, protractor etc.; also widely referred to as a "geometry box"
  • cousin-brother (male first cousin) & cousin-sister (female first cousin)
  • overhead bridge (bridge meant for pedestrians)
  • flyover (overpass or an over-bridge over a section of road or train tracks)
  • godown (warehouse)
  • godman somewhat pejorative word for a person who claims to be divine or who claims to have supernatural powers
  • gully to mean a narrow lane or alley (from the Hindi word "gali" meaning the same).
  • long-cut (The "opposite" of short-cut, in other words, taking the longest route).
  • mugging/cramming or mugging up (memorising, usually referring to learning "by rote," as used in British English and having nothing to do with street crime, that the expression might also mean in British/American English).
  • nose-screw (woman's nose-ring)
  • prepone (The "opposite" of postpone, that is to change a meeting to be earlier). Many dictionaries have added this word.
  • tiffin box for lunch box. The word is also commonly used to mean a between-meal snack.
  • BHK is real-estate terminology for "Bedroom, Hall and Kitchen", used almost exclusively in housing size categorisation. "Hall" refers to the living room, which is highlighted separately from other rooms. For instance, a 2BHK apartment has a total of three rooms — two bedrooms and a living room.
    • co-brother indicates relationship between two men who are married to sisters, as in "He is my co-brother"
  • co-inlaws indicates relationship between two sets of parents whose son and daughter are married, as in "Our co-inlaws live in Karachi."
    • co-sister indicates relationship between two women who are married to brothers, as in "She is my co-sister"
  • boss is a term used to refer to a male stranger such as shopkeeper: " Boss, what is the cost of that pen?"
  • vote-bank is a term commonly used during the elections in Pakistan, implying a particular bloc or community of people inclined to cast their votes for a political party that promises to deliver policies favouring them.
  • Rubber – Pencil eraser
  • pant – 'Trousers'
  • Mess – A dining hall, especially used by students at a dormitory. 'Mess' is also used in reference to eateries catering primarily to a working class population. Originated from the military term of similar meaning.
  • Eve teasing – 'Verbal sexual harassment of women'
  • Where are you put up? means 'Where are you currently staying'?.
  • "Out of station": "out of town". This phrase has its origins in the posting of army officers to particular 'stations' during the days of the East India Company.
  • "acting pricey": playing "hard to get", being snobbish.
  • "pass out" is meant to graduate, as in "I passed out of the university in 1995". In American/British English, this usage is limited to graduating out of military academies.
  • "tight slap" to mean "hard slap".
  • Time-pass – 'Doing something for leisure but with no intention or target/satisfaction', procrastination, pastime.
  • Time-waste – Something that is a waste of time; procrastination. Presumably not even useful for leisure.
  • Pindrop silence – Extreme silence (quiet enough to hear a pin drop).
  • chargesheet n. formal charges filed in a court; v. to file charges against someone in court
  • redressal: n. redress, remedy, reparation
  • "Hill Station" – mountain resort.
  • "stepney" refers to a spare tyre. The word is a genericised trademark originating from the Stepney Spare Motor Wheel, itself named after Stepney Street, in Llanelli, Wales.[15]
  • Cooling glasses — sunglasses
  • "cent per cent" – "100 percent/100 per cent" as in "He got cent per cent in math/maths".
  • "loose motion" – diarrhoea
  • "expire" – To die, especially in reference to one's family member.
  • "bunking" – To skip class without permission.
  • "carrying" – to be pregnant, as in "She is carrying".
  • "pressurise" – to put pressure on someone, to influence.
  • "'club'" or "'clubbing'" – To merge or put two things together. "'Just club it together'"
  • "'cantonment'" – permanent military installation.
  • "taking an exam/test" as opposed to "taking/writing an exam", a phrase more commonly used in the US and Canada. ("giving a test" is used to refer to a person who is going to conduct the test)
  • "copy" is used for notebook.
  • "lady finger" is used for okra.

Words which are considered archaic in some varieties of English, but are still in use in Pakistani English:

  • Curdyogurt
  • Dicky/dickey/Digy – the trunk of a car.[16]
  • In tension – being concerned or nervous. Phrased another way, "He is taking too much tension". Found in eighteenth-century British English.[17]
  • Intomultiplied by, as in 2 into 2 equals 4, rather than 2 times 2 is 4, which is more common in other varieties of English. The use of into dates back to the fifteenth century, when it had been common in British English.[18]
  • ragging – hazing (US).
  • Use of thrice, meaning "three times", is common in Pakistani English.
  • Use of the phrases like nothing or like anything to express intensity. For example, "These people will cheat you like anything". Such usage was part of colloquial English language in seventeenth century Britain and America.[19][20]
  • Word pairs "up to" and "in spite" compounded to "upto" and "inspite" respectively.
  • Over – to speak frankly. "Don't be too over with me."
  • Weeping – crying.

Numbering system[edit]

The Pakistani numbering system is preferred for digit grouping. When written in words, or when spoken, numbers less than 100,000 are expressed just as they are in Standard English. Numbers including and beyond 100,000 are expressed in a subset of the Pakistani numbering system. Thus, the following scale is used:

In digits (Standard English)In digits (Pakistani English)In words (Standard English)In words (Pakistani English)
10ten
100one hundred
1,000one thousand
10,000ten thousand
100,0001,00,000one hundred thousandone lac/lakh (from lākh لاکھ‬)
1,000,00010,00,000one millionten lac/lakh (from lākh لاکھ‬)
10,000,0001,00,00,000ten millionone crore (from karoṛ کروڑ‬)
1,000,000,0001,00,00,00,000one billionone arab (from arab ارب‬)
100,000,000,0001,00,00,00,00,000one hundred billionone kharab (from kharab کھرب‬)

Larger numbers are generally expressed as multiples of the above.[21][22]

Medical terms[edit]

Often the cause of undesirable confusion.

  • Viral Fever: influenza
  • Sugar: Diabetes
  • Jaundice: Acute Hepatitis. While standard medical terminology uses jaundice for a symptom (yellow discolouration of skin), in Pakistan the term is used to refer to the illness in which this symptom is most common.
  • Allopathy, used by homeopaths to refer to conventional medicine.

Food[edit]

  • Brinjal: aubergines / eggplant
  • Capsicum: called chili pepper, red or green pepper, or sweet pepper in the UK; capsicum in Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India; bell pepper in the US, Canada, and the Bahamas; and paprika in some other countries.
  • Curds: Yogurt
  • Sooji: Semolina
  • Pulses, dal: pulses, e.g. lentils
  • Karahi, kadai: wok
  • Sago: tapioca, Yuca in US
  • Ladyfinger, bhindi: okra
  • Sabzi: greens, green vegetables

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^McArthur, Tom, 1998. "Pakistani English." in Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. Retrieved on 2009-06-06.
  2. ^Hashmi, Alamgir (1987) [1978]. Preface. Pakistani Literature: The Contemporary English Writers. New York / Islamabad: World University Service / Gulmohar Press. 
  3. ^"CIA Factbook". 
  4. ^ abRahman, Tariq (2002). Language, Ideology and Power: Language-learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 
  5. ^Rahman, Tariq (1996). Language and Politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 
  6. ^Rahman, Tariq (2007). "The Role of English in Pakistan". In Tsui, Amy B.; Tollefson, James W. Language Policy, Culture, and Identity in Asian Contexts. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 219–239. 
  7. ^Mansoor, Sabiha (2005). Language Planning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 
  8. ^ abcdRahman, Tariq (1990). Pakistani English: The linguistic description of a non-native variety of English. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies. 
  9. ^Baumgardner, Robert. "Utilising Pakistani Newspaper English to Teach Grammar". World Englishes. 6 (3): 241–252. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971x.1987.tb00204.x. 
  10. ^ abPakistan Now a Hot Spot for IT Outsourcing
  11. ^How the Woosters captured Delhi – Shashi Tharoor
  12. ^A judgment of the Supreme Court.Archived 20 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^Multilingual-matters.net
  14. ^UElowermall.edu.pkArchived 10 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^BBC. Also see the OED.
  16. ^dicky, dickey, n., Oxford English Dictionary, 2009, Accessed on 1 July 2009
  17. ^1756 BURKE Subl. & B. IV. iii, "An unnatural tension of the nerves"
  18. ^multiply, v., Oxford English Dictionary, 2009, Accessed on 1 July 2009
  19. ^like, a., adv. (conj.), and n.2, Oxford English Dictionary, 2009, Accessed on 1 July 2009
  20. ^http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=like%20anything Reference.com, Accessed on 1 July 2009
  21. ^"Investors lose Rs 4.4 lakh crore in four days"Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Business Standard
  22. ^"Back Corporate chiefs getting crores in salaries: 100 and counting!", SmartInvestor.in

Further reading[edit]

  • Hashmi, A. (1989). "Prolegomena to the Study of Pakistani English and Pakistani Literature in English". Pakistani Literature (Islamabad), 2:1 1993.
  • Crystal, David (2003-08-03) [1995]. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Second ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53033-4. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  • Rahman, T. (1991). "The use of words in Pakistani English". English Today. 7 (02): 32. doi:10.1017/S0266078400005514. 
  • Nelson, Cecil L. (2006). World Englishes in Asian contexts. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-756-1. 
  • Mahboob, A. (2009). English as an Islamic Language: a case study of Pakistani English. World Englishes, 28(2):175–189. Link to abstract
  • Mahboob, A. (2008). Pakistani English: morphology and syntax. In R. Mesthrie, B. Kortmann, & E. Schneider (Eds), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia (Vol. 4). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Link to abstract
  • Mahboob, A. & Ahmar, N. (2008). Pakistani English: phonology. In R. Mesthrie, B. Kortmann, & E. Schneider (Eds), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia (Vol. 4). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Link to abstract
  • Hartford, B. & Mahboob, A. (2004). Models of discourse in the letter of complaint. World Englishes, 23(4): 585 – 600. Link to abstract

External links[edit]