Not all EndNote styles will be correctly configured to meet your publishing requirements - it may be necessary for you to edit a style:
- Open EndNote
- Go to Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager
- Select the style you want to edit. You may need to add a style to EndNote (see the Downloading output styles into EndNote box to the left).
- Click Edit. The style window opens.
To change how in-text citations appear:
1. Left menu > Citations > choose the aspect you want to change
Example: When using EndNote's APA 6th output style the author's initials will appear in in-text citations for those authors with the same surname but different initials. To prevent this from happening:
- Open the style window as outlined above.
- Left menu > Citations > Author Name > untick Use initials only for primary authors with the same name
- Then go Citations > Ambiguous Citations > untick Include the author initials or full name in citation.
- Close the style window (second X) > Yes to save changes. This will save as APA 6th copy leaving the original style unchanged.
- Go to Format Bibliography icon and select APA 6th copy.
- This should remove author initials from your in-text citations.
- If you experience problems when trying to save your edited style see the EndNote FAQ: Problems saving styles
To change how citations appear in your bibliography:
1. Open the style window as outlined above. Left menu > Bibliography > Templates. View the Bibliography template in the main window.
- To alter the format - Highlight the text & use Formatting buttons above the In-Text Citations window
- To alter punctuation - type or delete punctuation as required.
As well as the above aspects, there are special characters or 'fields' with which EndNote controls how records appear in the bibliography. Place your cursor where you want the character in the template. Go to Insert Field on the right and select the appropriate character:
- Singular/plural (^ caret symbol) - used if there is different text for singular/plural forms e.g. (Ed.),^(Eds.)
- Link adjecent text - a non-breaking space (shown as a small grey diamond in the template) used to link adjacent text to a field so text doesn't appear if the field is empty.
- Forced separation (| pipe symbol)- used to separate punctuation from adjacent fields. e.g. you might want a full stop at the end no matter what fields are empty.
- Field names as literal text (`back apostrophe symbol)- used if you want text in your records that has already been used as a field name e.g. if you want the word 'year' as well as the field year.
- To remove a field - Highlight > click Delete on your keyboard.
- To substitute fields select Bibliography > Field Substitutions and tick the appropriate boxes e.g. the URL field can be inserted for records without a DOI.
2. Don't forget to save your changes as a copy. Test your changes in a test Word document.
3. If you experience problems when trying to save your edited style see the EndNote FAQ: Problems saving styles
Please come to the Medical Library with your EndNote library & document for further help or contact us by phone / email (see Contact Us on left).
“Output style” is the term EndNote uses to refer to the template file used to format the citations and bibliography correctly for your citation or referencing style. The output style controls what is in capitals, what is in bold or italics and determines the many other ways that references for journal articles, book chapters or books are laid out
Each subject or discipline has its particular citation styles, and individual journals also have specific instructions to authors on how they want articles referenced
There are over 3,000 output styles available in EndNote. Included in the options is a Select All style that will print everything in each EndNote reference
Explanations of styles used at the University of Canterbury are available at Citations and Referencing
- APA, Harvard are examples of author-date styles
- MLA is an example of a style requiring footnotes
- Physical Sciences tend not to require any particular style
- IEEE citation style for Engineering is an example of a numbered style
- Law has specific requirements
- Geological Sciences uses the Royal Society of New Zealand Style
To select the style you want in EndNote
- Look at the top of the screen and locate the EndNote toolbar
- The style that is presently selected is identified in the menu bar on this toolbar
- In the case illustrated below APA 6th is the selected Style
- If you want to change this style, click the drop-down box and select another style from the list
- To browse all styles available, choose Select Another Style...
Click the column headings to sort by Name or Category, or click the Find-by button to see lists of styles by discipline area
- Click the Choose button to select a style from the list
You can also select other styles by going through the Style Manager which can be found at Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager...
Output styles in Word
Each Word document has its own output style. Changing the output style in EndNote does not automatically change the style in Word – this is intentional, as writers often write for various journals with differing referencing styles
Instructions on changing the output style in Word are given in Formating your bibliography in Word