Skip to content

Lnat Essay Questions 2009 Audi

Hints and tips

Multiple choice question hints

You may like to start by skim-reading or “speed-reading” the multiple-choice passages. But then go back and read them slowly and deliberately, and think about the exact meaning of every sentence. Note key words and phrases on your whiteboard if it helps you to concentrate.

Don’t read anything in, and don’t read anything out. You are not being asked to surmise. And the questioner, not you, is the best judge of relevance. So take everything in the passage at face-value and give it all even-handed attention.

Don’t ever rely on what you know from other sources in answering the multiple-choice questions. They are always questions about the passage itself. If it contains falsehoods, never mind – treat them as true for the purpose of the test.

Accept that one (and only one) of the answers to each question is correct. All the questions have been thoroughly checked. If there are matters of degree, the question is there to test how you handle matters of degree. If there are ambiguities, we are trying to find out how you cope with ambiguities. The solution is always there in the passage.

Remember that one of the hallmarks of a good multiple-choice question is the inclusion of one or more answer options that are wrong but almost right. Work hard to find them and eliminate them. Questions like this are not tricks. They are there to test whether your powers of discrimination are fine-grained (i.e. can distinguish propositions that are very close together) or coarse-grained (i.e. can distinguish propositions only when they are quite far apart). There are no trick questions on the LNAT.

There is a point for each right answer. But none are deducted for wrong answers. So don’t leave blanks. If you really can’t work out the answer, it’s better to eliminate the answers you know to be wrong and guess from the ones that are left.

You can skip multiple choice questions and come back to them by marking them for review. Remember, though, that you need to go back to them before the multiple choice part of the test is over. You can’t go back to them after the essay.

Unlike some multiple-choice tests the LNAT does not put great emphasis on speed. We have designed it so that you have a reasonable amount of time to work through all the questions patiently. Pacing yourself correctly is one of the main things you can learn by taking our practice tests.

Essay tips

We don’t care whether you have any data about the topic. An argument based on assumptions can be just as good as an argument based on information. But you need to say what your assumptions are. (e.g. “I will assume that the demand for health care is growing, and will continue to grow, out of proportion to supply. That being so, what can be done to ensure that rich countries don’t monopolize it?”)

We are also not very interested in your opinions. We are interested in whether you can defend a position – which may or may not be your own personal position. Sometimes you may do better if you attempt to defend a position that you do not agree with personally. This may make your argument tighter.

Economy of expression is important. Our ideal LNAT essay is 500-600 words long. If you write much less than this your essay will be too short to be evaluated properly and you are unlikely to do well. But a very long essay will also put you at a disadvantage. This panel of text (from the top of the page to the word “disadvantage on the left) is already about 600 words long. It was typed in about five minutes using two-fingered typing. You have 40 minutes to type a similar amount. So you have lots of time to think, organise your thoughts, compose, and edit. You should try and remove repetition, surplus words and digressions. This kind of discipline will be rewarded.

Don’t sit on the fence. Don’t say that each side in an argument has a point unless you go on to say which point each side has. It is perfectly all right to say that that one side is right about point 1, whereas the other side is right about point 2. It is also all right to say that, on closer inspection, the two sides are at cross-purposes and don’t really disagree. It is fence-sitting only if you say that they do disagree, that there is only one point of disagreement, and yet that they both have a point on that point. That makes no sense.

Don’t try to impress with fancy words or elaborate style. Be straightforward in your writing and your argument.

Read some sample essay answers here.

Advice from past candidates


  • ‘The more you practice the more you can understand what the questions are getting at; tutoring doesn’t help, it’s common sense.’
  • ‘Read the sample paper on the internet site, seek advice from tutors at college or school and familiarise yourself with texts of a more advanced and complex nature.’
  • ‘Read newspapers and learn to formulate opinions and express them succinctly. Also practice at being able to read subtle differences in things, for the multiple choice.’
  • ‘Doing the practice was useful to get a feel for how the test would go. This was helpful because I knew what to expect. I didn’t feel that I could have prepared any more for it though as you don’t know what the questions are going to be. Reading newspapers is helpful for the essay part as you’ll have a wider knowledge of the world and be able to answer a question more easily, it will also help your essay writing.’
  • ‘Practice writing essays on subjects with which you are unfamiliar. This helps you to focus on the planning aspects of essay writing and the structure of the essay instead of getting too wrapped up in the subject detail.’
  • ‘Perhaps read some difficult articles on topics of personal interest to familiarise with possibly difficult words that you may not understand out of context.’
  • ‘Use the material and advice on the LNAT website. Familiarisation with typical content, format and timing was invaluable.’

During the test

  • ‘Carefully read the instructions at the beginning of the test. I panicked half-way through the multiple choice section of the test and believed I only had half the actual time available to do this section.’
  • ‘Stay calm and keep track of time during the test as it was very time pressured and it would be easy to mismanage your time and therefore not perform as well as you should.’
  • ‘Try to keep to time on the multiple choice section and don’t over analyse the questions too much. I ran out of time on the multiple choice section and had to guess the last few which didn’t help my score. Also don’t panic or get unnerved by the timer.’
  • ‘It sounds silly but thoroughly read the questions, everyone is likely to say it, but genuinely read every single word’



What is the Ibrahim leadership and dialogue student travel program in the Middle East with Queens College?

The Ibrahim and Queens College Student Leadership Program is a fully funded month-long fellowship that provides an opportunity for U.S. undergraduate students of diverse backgrounds to develop their leadership skills and gain firsthand experience with interfaith dialogue, social entrepreneurship, and conflict transformation efforts in the Middle East.

What does the program offer?

• Ibrahim leadership and dialogue student travel program in the Middle East with Queens College provides an opportunity for high-achieving U.S. university students with strong leadership potential to gain first-hand experience in the Middle East.
• Facilitates student engagement with organizations and leaders in the Middle East working to overcome religious, cultural, ethnic, and political prejudice and hostility in the region.
• Inspires respectful dialogue as a tool for building mutual understanding between people of different faiths and backgrounds.
• Fosters a deeper understanding of the countries and cultures of the Middle East through dialogue and personal interaction.

What countries are scheduled for the annual fellowship trips?

The top and foremost priority for the Ibrahim and Queens College Student Leadership Program staff is to ensure our students’ safety. We work tirelessly with our allies on the ground to observe and monitor local and regional developments. Therefore, due to the changing nature of the region, final decisions as to specific countries and cities the program includes cannot be made far in advance. With our director’s vigorous efforts, however, we’re always able to notify accepted students of the countries’ list in a timely manner. Past trips have included: Israel, Jordan, Oman, UAE, and Saudi Arabia.
For precautionary measures, change in the trip’s itinerary is always anticipated and responsive arrangements will take place should any developments occur while on the trip.

What kind of places and activities do the fellowship trips include?

This is an intense educational and professional experience. Our students experience many long days full of formal and casual meetings, long periods of sitting, standing, and walking. This can be intellectually and emotionally exhausting at times. Therefore, in addition to our educational programming, we make sure to visit fun places and take breaks. Our students go on hiking trips, swim at local beaches, shop at local malls and souks, go to the top of the Burj Khalifa, enjoy camel rides in desert resorts, and tour historical places such as Petra, Jordan.
To gain some insight on previously visited places and learn about the trip’s impact, please visit our blog to hear from our former fellows.

Who are some of the leaders Ibrahim fellows have met on previous trips?

Fellows interact with a broad spectrum of Middle Eastern cultures and perspectives, particularly in the fields of religious understanding, social entrepreneurialism, and conflict transformation to fortify their role as thought leaders and informed actors on the front lines of hope, empathy, and enlightened self-interest. Regional leaders often include U.S. ambassadors and state departments officials, ministers and military officials from perspective countries. Other potential meeting opportunities include NGO leaders, entrepreneurs, journalists, and activists as well as artists, educators, and religious representatives and leaders.
To learn some names of specific leaders we have met during previous fellowships, please return to our homepage and check previous years’ itineraries.

How could you visit and return to a tumultuous, unpredictable region?

Fellows interact with a broad spectrum of Middle Eastern cultures and perspectives, particularly in the fields of religious understanding, social entrepreneurialism, and conflict transformation to fortify their role as thought leaders and informed actors on the front lines of hope, empathy, and enlightened self-interest. Regional leaders often include U.S. ambassadors and state departments officials, ministers and military officials from perspective countries. Other potential meeting opportunities include NGO leaders, entrepreneurs, journalists, and activists as well as artists, educators, and religious representatives and leaders.
To learn some names of specific leaders we have met during previous fellowships, please return to our homepage and check previous years’ itineraries.

What are the dates for the upcoming fellowship trip?

Our students’ safety is our priority. We work diligently with our allies and advisors in the region when planning our trips. Based on regional developments, we carefully plan our trips per country. In addition, we strive to ensure our students’ comfort away from home. Thus, when planning, we take in consideration religious holidays such as Shavuot and Ramadhan. Previous trips have taken place from mid-late May to mid-late June.

Who can apply?

Undergraduate students with leadership skills and strong academic and extracurricular records. Preference is given to sophomores and juniors. Seniors will only be considered for the program if they can demonstrate clear plans to continue their studies and benefit the academic community upon their return.

Is financial need a consideration?

What are the requirements?

To be considered for the fellowship program, you must be a U.S. Citizen, be over 18 years of age, have completed at least one year of undergraduate study by the program travel dates, and have a cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. Successful applicants have also demonstrated strong leadership potential based on involvement in extracurricular activities and school organizations/clubs, or in internship and work experience.

I have a 3.25 GPA, can I still apply?

Yes. Although the program has previously accepted applicants with a cumulative GPA lower than 3.5, the fellowship program is highly competitive. Students from colleges and university across the country apply annually and only fifteen are selected from a large pool of applicants. Thus, a higher GPA strengthens your application and makes you more competitive.
Candidates who hold high GPAs, but lack extensive records of extracurricular activities, have not been involved on-campus and in their community, and cannot demonstrate the necessary skills, will not be selected.

I will be off campus during my junior year. Can I still apply?

Yes. If you are on a semester study abroad or have taken a full-time internship semester, you are still an active undergraduate student, and you can still apply.

I am a BA/MA student, can I still apply?

Yes. The BA/MA program is an example of accelerated programs that award two degrees. Often, students enroll in such programs as advanced sophomores or early juniors. If you have been awarded a BA degree on completion of the undergraduate requirements, however, but you have not been awarded an MA on completion of the remaining BA/MA requirements, you’re still eligible to apply. In this case, you enter the graduation date of your completion of the BA/MA requirement in the online application. Please note that you would be considered a senior, and you will only be considered for the program if you can demonstrate clear plans to continue your studies and benefit the academic community upon your return.

I am a recent graduate but currently taking classes at an undergraduate school, can I still apply?

No. If you have graduated and been awarded a bachelor degree, you are not eligible to apply and your application will not be considered for the program.

Under what specific circumstances are seniors considered for the fellowship program?

Seniors will only be considered for the program if you can demonstrate clear plans to continue your studies and benefit the academic community upon your return. Strong senior applicants are those who plan to return to their home universities to extend their undergraduate studies, to enroll in a BA/MA program, or continue as a graduate while implementing on campus projects to benefit their academic community upon their return.

I am a senior but plan to extend undergraduate studies for at least another academic year, how should I address the graduation date on the application?

Please enter the appropriate date indicated on your academic records by your college/university. In addition, provide a clarification of your plan and provide evidence in the bio field of the online application. If you have proceeded with the appropriate procedure though your university, the date on your academic records should reflect the change. For further details on such procedure, please contact your university academic records office or refer your academic advisor.

I am 17 years old but will turn 18 within the application year, can I still apply?

No. You must be over 18 years of age by the trip’s initial date to be considered for the fellowship.

I applied in a previous year, can I apply again?

Yes. If you have applied in a previous year but were not selected, we highly encourage you to apply again. Your reconsideration of the program shows your determination and seriousness concerning our fellowship program in the Middle East.

Can siblings apply if we meet the requirements?

Yes. You will be considered and evaluated based on your own credentials and qualifications and not on your relationships with other current or formal applicants.

My school continues until the first week of June, how would this effect my application?

It will not affect your application. Annually, students from colleges and universities across the country apply for our program. Your application will be evaluated based on your credentials and qualifications and not on your school’s academic calendar.

I am not a U.S. citizen, but I am in the process of naturalization, can I still apply?

No. you must be a U.S. citizen by the program’s initial date to be considered. The naturalization process requires different time based on federal and state’s regulations, and each naturalizing application is unique from others and may take less or more time to be processed. For further details on U.S. citizenship and the naturalization process, please visit the U.S. citizenship and immigration services website or contact your local citizenship and immigration office.

I am a U.S. citizen, but I don’t have a U.S. passport, can I still apply?

Yes. You must, however, have a U.S. passport a month prior to the trip’s initial date if you are selected for the fellowship. Your passport is an essential document that allows you to leave and enter the U.S. as well as travel from one country onto another while on the trip.

I am a dual-citizen, and I have a U.S. passport, can I still apply?

It depends on what type of dual-citizenship you hold. Different countries in the Middle East have different regulations regarding dual citizenships. To verify your eligibility to travel to the different countries planned in our upcoming trip, please contact us via e-mail at

Can I use my U.S. diplomat passport to travel on this trip?

Yes. Some countries in the Middle East, however, may not allow you to enter if you have certain visa stamps in your passport. To verify your eligibility to travel to the different countries planned in our upcoming trip, please contact us via e-mail at

My U.S. Passport has visa stamps from other Middle Eastern countries, can I still apply?

Yes. Not all visa stamps would prevent you from traveling to and in the region. For further details and to verify your eligibility to travel to the different countries planned in our upcoming trip, please contact us via e-mail at

My passport will expire soon, should I wait to be accepted before applying for renewal?

You may apply for passport renewal whenever you decide. If you are accepted, you must have a valid U.S. passport a month prior to the Program’s initial date for departure to the Middle East. Further, your passport must be valid for 6 months beyond date of exit of the last country on the list of countries to visit on our trip. Please note that the U.S. Department of State may change travel requirements and regulations per country at any time. We advise all applicants to periodically visit the U.S. Department of State website to learn more about the processing times for passport renewals and for updated travel regulations regarding different countries in the Middle East.

Can my transcripts be an unofficial copy?

Yes. You may submit an official or an unofficial copy of transcripts – a copy downloaded from your university’s website but does not include the official stamps.

Who should I ask for recommendation letters?

Recommendations must be from a professor, advisor, employer, or a community leader who can effectively speak of your ethics and character. Recommendation letters should address and highlight your academic accomplishments, ability to work independently and as a part of a team, leadership skills, involvement in your community, and other qualities that make you stand out as an exemplary applicant.
If you have applied in a previous year, your recommendations must be up to date for the current application cycle.

What should my recommenders include in their letters?

Ibrahim applicants are required to provide two recommendation letters each of which should address one of the following. Although, a recommendation letter may address more than one criterion.
Leadership: This recommendation letter should confirm your impact plan. It should attest to your leadership capacities and potential using example of your involvement in extracurricular activities and in your community.
Commitment to Conflict Transformation: This recommendation letter should confirm your background and passion about the Middle East. It should use examples demonstrating your current influence on campus and in your community and your commitment to a career in conflict transformation.

Can my recommendation letters be submitted directly to the ILDME?

Yes. Recommendation letters may be sent directly to us via e-mail at Please make sure that your recommenders indicate your name in the subject line.

I submitted my recommendation letters via the online application, should I also forward them via e-mail as well?

No. If you have successfully uploaded your recommendation letters onto your online application, it is not necessary to send copies via e-mail. If, however, your recommendation letters were not successfully uploaded, we will contact you and request electronic copies via e-mail.

Should I use my school e-mail when filling the online application?

Please use a school or personal e-mail that you periodically access and through which you could reply in timely manner should we need to contact you.

I have a lot to say, can I exceed the essays’ word limits?

No. We recommend that you abide by our guidelines. This is your opportunity to prove your communication skills, to express yourself, and speak of your background, ambitions, and plans precisely and effectively.

What are the primary criteria for selection?

Extensive record of involvement in campus and community activities and service; Commitment to a career in governmental or nongovernmental sectors through which you advocate for cross-cultures understanding and collaboration; Leadership skills and a high potential of becoming a change-maker in the conflict resolution field; Strong academic record with trajectory to continue in a graduate program for relative subjects.
There are a few candidates who are strong in all areas. Annually, we select candidates, on a case by case basis, who may not meet all requirements or have gaps in their application. The most important criterion is the commitment to conflict transformation though social and economic entrepreneurship, and cultural and religious understanding. Candidates with major gaps will not be selected.

Are certain degrees given priority?

Change-agents hail from different backgrounds and contribute to conflict resolution and peace building processes through various ways. Former Ibrahim Fellows include scholars who majored in education, economics, anthropology, and hard sciences among other fields. Those Fellows, however, were able to clearly demonstrate the way in which their degree supported their aspiration and career trajectory in the conflict transformation field.

Does the Ibrahim leadership and dialogue student travel program in the Middle East with Queens College prefer candidates who plan to do policy work over those plan to provide direct services?

No. Former Ibrahim Fellows include student leaders who continued their studies to earn higher degree and work in the policy-making field while some began careers or advocacy work with organization at home or abroad. Candidates choose how they would like to contribute to conflict transformation in the specific communities that interests them.

Does the Ibrahim leadership and dialogue student travel program in the Middle East with Queens College prefer candidates who plan to work on domestic over international issues?

No. Former Ibrahim Fellow include student leaders with interests in federal careers, working as campaign strategists, work in a nonprofit work, or join a national or international NGO or INGO.

How will the applicants be judged and selected?

There are multiple stages for our selection process. During the first stage, we read and evaluate online applications including essays, resumes, academic records, and recommendation letters. Applicants moving to the next stage will be contacted for an initial interview. We may contact you for follow up questions and further details before moving forward in the process. The final stage of the selection will consist of at least one long interview or a series of interviews with the director, Mark Rosenblum. Please note that interviews will be via phone and Skype.
There are multiple components to our online application. We evaluate and compare each component as well as each application against others. In order to submit a strong, competitive application, we recommend that you allow yourself ample time to answer the questions to the best of your ability and to have someone proofread your answers prior to your submission. In addition to evaluating your recommendation letters, we evaluate your GPA, your writing and communication skills, your academic and community achievements, and the organization and demonstration of your projects and plans.

Can I defer my fellowship if selected for the Ibrahim leadership and dialogue student travel program in the Middle East with Queens College?

You may not defer the Ibrahim and Queens College Student Leadership Program, but you may reapply for the following year. Please note that an acceptance letter for a specific year does not guarantee a spot for the following year.

When will I be notified?

Due to the large pool of applications we receive every year, only those who successfully pass the first stage will be selected for an initial interview. Applicants who pass the initial interview will be contacted for follow ups. Only accepted applicants will be notified. Dates of final decisions will be published on our website at the end of the application period.

What happens if I am accepted?

Be prepared for a life-changing experience. You will be challenged to debate and discuss difficult issues, to examine your limits under critical diplomatic settings, and to prove your analytical and leadership skills. You will laugh, cry, feel anger, and reach a deeper empathy and understanding. You will enjoy the beauty of fascinating nature, climb to the top of hills, mountains, and towers. You will swim in the Arabian Gulf and the Mediterranean. You will be welcomed with luxurious traditional dinners and enjoy the aroma and taste of the traditional Arabic coffee. Local hands will help you wrap your head scarf the proper way. You will ride camels, walk in a desert, and create your own postcard moments. You will pray the taraweeh in the dome of the rock and you will walk astonished and with heavy emotions inside the children’s memorial, Yad Vashem. With laughter and tears, you will make lifelong friends and invaluable connections.
Ibrahim and Queens College Student Leadership Program Fellows will be contacted to submit further information and materials such as professional headshots and short biographies. A strong professional bio is concise and free from errors and repetitions. Your bio should start with your name, your major and minor, indicate your position if you hold a job or an internship, and should be written from a third person perspective. Bios that resonate with others effectively highlight academic and professional achievements and reflect one’s personality. Make sure you end your bio with your contact details or a hyperlink to such contact information as a LinkedIn profile.
Fellows will be required to initial and sign our behavioral policy, and send copies of their passports and personal information such as social security number and birthdates. This information will be used to purchase medical coverage, book domestic and international tickets, and inform the consulates of perspective countries.
During the spring semester and prior to the trip, our director, Mark Rosenblum and our senior fellow, Peter Bartu will send weekly reading packets that consist of book chapters, maps, online links, and media. All readings must be completed as assigned prior to our departure. Fellows are encouraged to have hard or electronic copy of the readings while on the trip for reference. In addition, further readings and writings may be assigned while on the trip.
Fellows will receive pre-departure packets which will explain in details matters related to our travel and behavior while in the Middle East as well as itineraries of each country we plan to visit.

Would the program help me reschedule my finals if I am accepted?

If necessary. Usually, accepted students show their acceptance letters to their professors to rearrange their finals and deadlines. On previous years, students have taken their finals prior to their departure to the Middle East, or after their return, or a combination of both. If you are considering applying for our fellowship program, we recommend that you notify your professors early in your spring semester. We also highly recommend that you take your finals prior to your departure to the Middle East. The trip is time consuming and the fellowship requires a large amount of time while on the trip and beyond. To take full advantage of the fellowship while abroad, it is best to finish finals and papers before leaving.

Will you provide Kosher and Halal food for observant fellows on the trip?

Yes. We go out of our way to address restricted diets. Some fellows follow medical or religious diets; others will be fasting for Ramadhan. The region thrives with variety of vegan, vegetarian, and protein-rich meals, and appropriate arrangements will be made per situation to meet dietary needs of our fellows.

Will the program accommodate religious holidays and Shabbats during the trip?

Yes. While the fellowship program requires long working days and a load of reading and writing assignments, fellows are given free evenings, some weekends, and breaks. During the trip, all Shabbats are observed and Muslim fellows can make the most of the taraweeh prayers.

Will you provide medical insurance and medical assistant during the trip duration?

Yes. The program provides all students and staff with traveling medical coverage for the duration of the Fellowship period.

Have another question? Please contact us via e-mail at