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  • Algiers, Ratto Magana jewelry workshop
  • Castilla, Castile, Magana, architecture, castle, clouds, history, old, remote, soria, Spain, Europe, touristic, town, travel
  • Dar El-Magana, Casa del Reloj, Rue Talaa Kbira, Fez El-Bali, Fes, Morocco.
  • Dar al-Magana islamic clock at Bou Inania Madrasa, Medina of Fez, Morocco, Africa
  • Castle, Magaña. Soria province, Castilla-Léon, Spain
  • Spain, Castilla Leon Community, Soria Province, Magaña Castle and town,
  • Magaña. Soria. Castilla León. Spain.
  • Portrait of Luis Fernando Magaña Solís, Physicist, professor and researcher at the Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City, Mexico on December 20, 2017. Maya mathematics constituted the most sophisticated mathematical system ever developed in the Americas. The Maya counting system required only three symbols to form all their numbers: a dot representing one, a bar representing five, and a shell representing 20 or zero, depending on its placement. The Maya used a base 20 (vigesimal) numerical system, unlike our current base 10.
  • Magana Twins The 25th annual Imagen awards held at Century Plaza hotel Los Angeles, California - 15.08.10
  • Ernesto Magana, owner and pilot of Cabo Sky Tours at Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico
  • Francine Beppu Vivian Magana Stars from 'The Real L Word' celebrate a cast member's birthday at Parlour Room Hollywood
  • Chile Football League Serie A / ( Club Deportivo Universidad de Concepcion ) - Cristian Magana
  • Calatañazor, province of Soria, Castile and Leon, Spain
  • Rieste, Germany. 4th Sep, 2015. Fabrice Magana of France in action during the slalom competition of the Waterskiing European Championships in Rieste, Germany, 4 September 2015. Europe's best waterskiiers will be competing in the trick ski, slalom, jumping and combined disciplines until 6 September 2015. PHOTO: FRISO GENTSCH/DPA/Alamy Live News
  • Morelia, Mexico. January 20th, 2016. MEXICO, Morelia: Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda, addresses the crowd on January 20, 2016 in Morelia.Juan Antonio Magana de la Mora, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Michoacan, recognized the Secretary for contributions by the Mexican Army. ©ADID JIMENEZ/NEWZULU/Alamy Live News
  • U.S. Army Sgt. Amador Magana from A & B Platoon, Alpha Company, 173rd Special Troops Battalion, 173rd Airborne Combat Team, prepare a fuel bag to be rolled up in preparation of closing Combat Outpost Chenari, Logar province, Afghanistan, July 25, 2010. Operation Enduring Freedom 305349
  • Sgt. 1st Class Jose Magana and Staff Sgt. Thomas West, a team from the 6th Ranger Battalion, run between events during the 2010 Best Ranger competition at Fort Benning, Ga. The team placed 13th overall. Photo credit: Daren Reehl. 2010 Best Ranger Competition /ranger/2010/
  • U.S. Air Force 1st Lt. Travis Bice and Senior Airman Francisco Magana Zaragoza with the 45th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron MacDill AFB Fla., carry a Portable Therapeutic Liquid Oxygen on to a C-130 Hercules cargo plane at Pittsburg International Airport Air Reserve Station, Coraopolis, Pa., July 25, 2013. These Airmen are participating in Warrior Exercise 86-13-01 (WAREX)/Exercise Global Medic, 2013,. WAREX provides units an opportunity to rehearse military maneuvers and tactics. Held in conjunction with WAREX, Global Medic is an annual joint-field training exercise designed to replicate all
  • Beatriz Magana lays out cookie dough on a tray at Zoe's Cookies and Other Delights in Richmond, Calif. on Tuesday, January 30, 2007. (Dean Coppola/Contra Costa Times)
  • 051114-N-3019M-004 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (Nov. 14, 2005) - U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Louis Magana echoes taps on his bugle during a ceremony dedicating a new flagstaff and display of bronze plaques commemorating 73 Marines who gave their lives and 15 survivors of the attack on the battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941. The memorial features the names of the 88 Marines stationed aboard Arizona during the attack, a piece of steam pipe from Arizona's original hull, the National Ensign, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps flag. U.S. Navy photo by Journalist 3rd Class Ryan C. McGinley (RE
  • Dar al-Magana
  • Lance Cpl. Fernando Magana, from Dalton, Georgia, mounts a GAU-21 .50-caliber machine gun to a CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter Jan. 14 during Lava Viper 15.1-2 at Pohakuloa Training Area, Hawaii. The Marines attached three machine guns to the helicopter and shot more than 1,200 rounds at stationary targets. Magana is a helicopter crew chief with Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 463, Marine Aircraft group 24, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Devon Tindle/Released) Marines fire machine guns from Super Stallions 150115-M-XW268-915
  • Dar al-Magana islamic clock at Bou Inania Madrasa, Medina of Fez, Morocco, Africa
  • Inside Cafe Clock on Derb El Magana in the ancient medina of Fez, Morocco.
  • Agreda - Nuestra Señora de Magaña
  • U.S. Army Sgt. Ibon Magana, a Military Police officer with the 330th Military Police Company talks with local nationals during a mission in Matun District, Khost province, Afghanistan, Sept. 17. Distributing Voting Materials 321763
  • Portrait of Luis Fernando Magaña Solís, Physicist, professor and researcher at the Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City, Mexico on December 20, 2017. Maya mathematics constituted the most sophisticated mathematical system ever developed in the Americas. The Maya counting system required only three symbols to form all their numbers: a dot representing one, a bar representing five, and a shell representing 20 or zero, depending on its placement. The Maya used a base 20 (vigesimal) numerical system, unlike our current base 10.
  • SINGAPORE (Feb 5, 2018) – The Singapore Area Coordinator (SAC) recognized its 2018 Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) Military Youth of the Year recipient during an awards ceremony held at the Terror Club Feb. 4, 2018. In addition to the BGCA Military Youth of the Year award category the command also awarded a Junior Youth of the Year Award to Eliza Magana, (second from left) a freshman attending Stamford American International School.
  • Ernesto Magana ultralight pilot and owner of Cabo Sky Tours at Cabo San Lucas Baja California Sur Mexico
  • Vivian Magana Rachel Rodriguez Stars from 'The Real L Word' celebrate a cast member's birthday at Parlour Room Hollywood
  • Spain - La Liga Santander 2016-2017 / ( Granada C.F. ) - Francisco Guillermo Ochoa Magana ' Guillermo Ochoa '
  • Magaña, province of Soria, Castile and Leon, Spain
  • RELEASE DATE: October 18, 2009. MOVIE TITLE: Under the Salt. STUDIO: Fidecine. PLOT: A series of murders leads commander TRUJILLO to Santa Rosa de la Sal a town close to a salt mine, where he meets VˆCTOR ZEPEDA - a lonely teenager who works in his father funeral home and spends his free time making crude animated horror films - who's strange behavior seems to point at him as the culprit of the crimes. PICTURED: JULIO BRACHO as Prof. Magana.
  • Morelia, Mexico. January 20th, 2016. MEXICO, Morelia: The Secretary of National Defense, Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda, accepts an award on January 20, 2016 in Morelia.Juan Antonio Magana de la Mora, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Michoacan, recognized the Secretary for contributions by the Mexican Army. ©ADID JIMENEZ/NEWZULU/Alamy Live News
  • SINGAPORE (Feb 5, 2018) – The Singapore Area Coordinator (SAC) recognized its 2018 Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) Military Youth of the Year recipient during an awards ceremony held at the Terror Club Feb. 4, 2018. In addition to the BGCA Military Youth of the Year award category the command also awarded a Junior Youth of the Year Award to Eliza Magana, (left) a freshman attending Stamford American International School.
  • 150831-N-AX546-329 BLACK SEA (Aug. 31, 2015) Operations Specialist Seaman Christy Magana, native of Ventura, California, stands a navigation communications watch on the bridge of the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Donald Cook (DDG 75) during restricted maneuvering as the ship enters the port of Odessa, Ukraine to participate in exercise Sea Breeze 2015. Sea Breeze is an air, land and maritime exercise designed to improve maritime safety, security and stability in the Black Sea.. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Sean Spratt /Released)

Presentation on theme: "H. TYPES OF SELECTION frequency of individuals in the population with a trait range for the trait mean value for the trait in all populations, individuals."— Presentation transcript:

1 H. TYPES OF SELECTION frequency of individuals in the population with a trait range for the trait mean value for the trait in all populations, individuals are born in which there is a range in the size of a trait

2 if there was no selection, the population would become more and more varied over time in theory, you could have a population in which both an elephant and a weasel were just two extremes of the same species this does not normally happen, due to selection for specific traits in a population

3 1. Stabilizing Selection this is the most common form of selection in which the extreme values for a trait are selected against over time the mean of the populations remains the same, but the range is reduced

4 2. Directional Selection selection favours one of the extremes over time the population mean shifts up or down and the range generally deceases a bit

5 3. Disruptive Selection selection favours both of the extremes in a population the result is two populations each with an altered mean and a reduced range

6 4. Sexual Selection Human Beauty The influence of averaging The influence of hormones

7 blend of 2blend of 4blend 8 blend of 16blend of 32

8 low testosterone normal testosterone high testosterone

9 Influence of female hormones on attractiveness. Which composite of the same 10 women looks more attractive? high estrogenlow estrogen

10 Normal pictures of two people Facial symmetry

11 Two sides of the face combined to make a whole face

12 Two left sides or two right sides  different face

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18 Some of the benefits to attractive looking people are: -their partners tend to be more attractive;

19 -they are thought to be more intelligent and sociable by their teachers who tend to give them better grades in school;

20 -the courts tend to treat them more leniently.

21 Good looks were a sign of being healthy and relatively disease free.

22 Research shows that even three month old babies stare at photos of the faces of attractive people longer than at photos of unattractive people.

23 Tallness in men is attractive-it suggests dominance, status, and power and therefore the possibility of resources.

24 Those faces considered to be the most beautiful are typically those which have the greatest number of facial features average to any particular culture/race. It is thought that the typically average is attractive because this suggests something which has adapted to its environment and is healthy.

25 SELECTION by the FEMALE # 8 –10 work on these questions now

26 In many species, the female selects a mate based on characteristics that she perceives will help her offspring. In each of the situations below, the female selects the ‘b’ male. EXPLAIN why she does so in each case. 8. Peacocks: a] the male has a short tail, is not brightly coloured and flies well, hiding from or avoiding most predators b] the male has a long tail, colourful body and flies poorly, getting chased by more predators and having a high fatality rate male ‘b’must be tough to survive with long tail must eat well to get minerals for bright pigments

27 9. Cheetah a] The male stays with the female and attempts to help raise the young b] The male impregnates the female and then immediately moves away male ‘b’ by leaving, he removes competition for food with female Cheetahs do not generally hunt cooperatively, so no advantage if he stays

28 10. Squirrels a] The male spends some time keeping a small area free from competitors and eats quite well, keeping itself vigorous b] The male spends all its time keeping a very large area free from competitors and eats poorly, letting itself get run down male ‘b’ ensures maximum resources for female & offspring if he dies, she can mate with someone else next time! the key is that the maximum number of her offspring survive

29 So why do human males and females have the secondary sexual traits that they do? List 5 or 6 secondary sexual traits (post puberty) of males and 5 or 6 of females Then for each trait, list the evolutionary advantage of that trait

30 What should a female look for in a male? Someone that is symmetric of face [healthy] Someone who is large & strong to able to ‘defend’ his mate & offspring It would be good if they were ‘nice’ to her, but this is not essential if he has the other traits This is where muscular, high testosterone, etc fit in Someone who looks ‘similar’ to their father as he was able to produce her

31 What should a male look for in a female? Someone that is symmetric of face [healthy] Someone who has wide hips & good fat stores to nurture babies If he feels that she is not ‘nice’ to him, he may go elsewhere as his loyalty is not essential here [This is where ‘curvy’, high estrogen fit in] Someone who looks ‘similar’ to their mother as she was able to produce him