# 2x3 Anova Hypothesis Statement

I think it's important to clearly separate the hypothesis and its corresponding test. For the following, I assume a balanced, between-subjects CRF-$pq$ design (equal cell sizes, Kirk's notation: Completely Randomized Factorial design).

$Y_{ijk}$ is observation $i$ in treatment $j$ of factor $A$ and treatment $k$ of factor $B$ with $1 \leq i \leq n$, $1 \leq j \leq p$ and $1 \leq k \leq q$. The model is $Y_{ijk} = \mu_{jk} + \epsilon_{i(jk)}, \quad \epsilon_{i(jk)} \sim N(0, \sigma_{\epsilon}^2)$

Design: $\begin{array}{r|ccccc|l} ~ & B 1 & \ldots & B k & \ldots & B q & ~\\\hline A 1 & \mu_{11} & \ldots & \mu_{1k} & \ldots & \mu_{1q} & \mu_{1.}\\ \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots\\ A j & \mu_{j1} & \ldots & \mu_{jk} & \ldots & \mu_{jq} & \mu_{j.}\\ \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots\\ A p & \mu_{p1} & \ldots & \mu_{pk} & \ldots & \mu_{pq} & \mu_{p.}\\\hline ~ & \mu_{.1} & \ldots & \mu_{.k} & \ldots & \mu_{.q} & \mu \end{array}$

$\mu_{jk}$ is the expected value in cell $jk$, $\epsilon_{i(jk)}$ is the error associated with the measurement of person $i$ in that cell. The $()$ notation indicates that the indices $jk$ are fixed for any given person $i$ because that person is observed in only one condition. A few definitions for the effects:

$\mu_{j.} = \frac{1}{q} \sum_{k=1}^{q} \mu_{jk}$ (average expected value for treatment $j$ of factor $A$)

$\mu_{.k} = \frac{1}{p} \sum_{j=1}^{p} \mu_{jk}$ (average expected value for treatment $k$ of factor $B$)

$\alpha_{j} = \mu_{j.} - \mu$ (effect of treatment $j$ of factor $A$, $\sum_{j=1}^{p} \alpha_{j} = 0$)

$\beta_{k} = \mu_{.k} - \mu$ (effect of treatment $k$ of factor $B$, $\sum_{k=1}^{q} \beta_{k} = 0$)

$(\alpha \beta)_{jk} = \mu_{jk} - (\mu + \alpha_{j} + \beta_{k}) = \mu_{jk} - \mu_{j.} - \mu_{.k} + \mu$

(interaction effect for the combination of treatment $j$ of factor $A$ with treatment $k$ of factor $B$, $\sum_{j=1}^{p} (\alpha \beta)_{jk} = 0 \, \wedge \, \sum_{k=1}^{q} (\alpha \beta)_{jk} = 0)$

$\alpha_{j}^{(k)} = \mu_{jk} - \mu_{.k}$

(conditional main effect for treatment $j$ of factor $A$ within fixed treatment $k$ of factor $B$, $\sum_{j=1}^{p} \alpha_{j}^{(k)} = 0 \, \wedge \, \frac{1}{q} \sum_{k=1}^{q} \alpha_{j}^{(k)} = \alpha_{j} \quad \forall \, j, k)$

$\beta_{k}^{(j)} = \mu_{jk} - \mu_{j.}$

(conditional main effect for treatment $k$ of factor $B$ within fixed treatment $j$ of factor $A$, $\sum_{k=1}^{q} \beta_{k}^{(j)} = 0 \, \wedge \, \frac{1}{p} \sum_{j=1}^{p} \beta_{k}^{(j)} = \beta_{k} \quad \forall \, j, k)$

With these definitions, the model can also be written as: $Y_{ijk} = \mu + \alpha_{j} + \beta_{k} + (\alpha \beta)_{jk} + \epsilon_{i(jk)}$

This allows us to express the null hypothesis of no interaction in several equivalent ways:

$H_{0_{I}}: \sum_{j}\sum_{k} (\alpha \beta)^{2}_{jk} = 0$

(all individual interaction terms are $0$, such that $\mu_{jk} = \mu + \alpha_{j} + \beta_{k} \, \forall j, k$. This means that treatment effects of both factors - as defined above - are additive everywhere.)$H_{0_{I}}: \alpha_{j}^{(k)} - \alpha_{j}^{(k')} = 0 \quad \forall \, j \, \wedge \, \forall \, k, k' \quad (k \neq k')$

(all conditional main effects for any treatment $j$ of factor $A$ are the same, and therefore equal $\alpha_{j}$. This is essentially Dason's answer.)$H_{0_{I}}: \beta_{k}^{(j)} - \beta_{k}^{(j')} = 0 \quad \forall \, j, j' \, \wedge \, \forall \, k \quad (j \neq j')$

(all conditional main effects for any treatment $k$ of factor $B$ are the same, and therefore equal $\beta_{k}$.)$H_{0_{I}}$: In a diagramm which shows the expected values $\mu_{jk}$ with the levels of factor $A$ on the $x$-axis and the levels of factor $B$ drawn as separate lines, the $q$ different lines are parallel.

The alternative hypothesis is: the means are not the same.

For the two-way ANOVA, the possible null hypotheses are:

- There is no difference in the means of factor \(A\)
- There is no difference in means of factor \(B\)
- There is no interaction between factors \(A\) and \(B\)

The alternative hypothesis for case 3 is: there is an interaction between \(A\) and \(B\).

For the three-way ANOVA, the main effects are factors \(A\), \(B\), and \(C\), and the two-factor interactions are \(AB\), \(AC\), and \(BC\). There is also a three-factor interaction, \(ABC\).

For each of the seven cases the null hypothesis is the same: there is no difference in means, and the alternative hypothesis is the means are not equal.