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Metro Rail In India Essays On The Great

Smart Cities India is all set to become the most-populous country in the world by 2030, making it the home to the biggest and the most under-penetrated market for global manufacturers and service providers. Unlike its preceding generations, this growing population is also shifting to top tier cities of the country giving rise to new megacities estimated to generate 80% of economic growth, with potential to apply modern technologies and infrastructure, promoting better use of scarce resources.

As per estimates, about 25–30 people will migrate every minute to major Indian cities from rural areas in search of better livelihood and better lifestyles. With this momentum, about 843 million people are expected to live in urban areas by 2050. To accommodate this massive urbanization, India needs to find smarter ways to manage complexities, reduce expenses, increase efficiency and improve the quality of life.

With this context, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision “Digital India,” has set an ambitious plan to build 100 smart cities across the country. Modi in his speech quoted, “Cities in the past were built on riverbanks. They are now built along highways. But in the future, they will be built based on availability of optical fiber networks and next-generation infrastructure.”

The Government of India allocated INR70.6 billion (US$1.2 billion) for Smart Cities in Budget 2014–15. Given the sheet scale of the development plan, the public resources would largely be insufficient and the government is working on envisaging new financing routes to boost the program.

The government machinery is working on putting together the standards for executing this mega plan, and identifying the cities to be developed in consultation with states. A few smart cities are already coming up across the country, including Kochi Smart City, Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT) in Ahmedabad, Naya Raipur in Chhattisgarh, Lavasa in Maharashtra and Wave Infratech's 4,500-acre smart city near New Delhi.

India has also been inviting foreign partnership in developing the smart cities and has signed deals to build eight cities — three with Germany, three with the US, and one each with Spain and Singapore.

India’s Smart City plan is part of a larger agenda of creating Industrial Corridors between India’s big metropolitan cities in India. These include the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor, the Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor and the Bangalore-Mumbai Economic Corridor. It is hoped that many industrial and commercial centres will be recreated as “Smart Cities” along these corridors. The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), which is spread across six states, seeks to create seven new smart cities as the nodes of the corridor in its first phase.

Interestingly, these corridors are developed by the Indian Government in collaboration with foreign governments who are keen to find their domestic private enterprises new avenues of investment. Japan is helping India develop its smart cities by investing US$4.5 billion in the first phase of the DMIC project through lending from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). JICA has also taken up master planning for three “Smart Cities” — Ponneri in Tamil Nadu, Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Tumkur in Karnataka — in the Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor. The UK is collaborating with India for developing the Bangalore-Mumbai Economic Corridor project with the help of private companies from Britain.

Eight critical pillars of India’s Smart City Program are:

1. Smart Governance: Investments of about US$1.2 trillion will be required over the next 20 years across areas such as transportation, energy and public security to build smart cities in India. Highlights:

  • US$1.2 billion allocated for smart cities and FDI norms relaxed
  • US$83 million allocated for Digital India Initiative
  • PPP Model to be used to upgrade infrastructure in 500 urban areas
  • Smart City projects to create 10-15% rise in employment
  • Ministry of Urban Development has plans to develop 2 smart cities in each of India’s 29 states
  • Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation Ltd (DMICDC) plans seven “smart cities” along the 1,500 km industrial corridor across six states with a total investment of US$100 billion
2. Smart Energy: Three crucial dimensions of smart energy systems are: Smart Grid
  • Electrification of all households with power available for at least 8 hours per day by 2017
  • Establish smart grid test bed by 2014 and smart grid knowledge centre by 2015
  • Implementation of 8 smart grid pilot projects in India with an investment of US$10 million
Energy Storage
  • Addition of 88,000 MW of power generation capacity in the twelfth five year plan (2012-17)
  • India needs to add at least 250-400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2030
  • The Power Grid Corporation of India has planned to invest US$26 billion in the next five years
  • Smart Meters
  • India to install 130 million smart meters by 2021
3. Smart Environment: Three crucial dimensions of ensuring sustainable development are: Renewable Energy
  • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has plans to add capacity of 30,000 MW in the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17)
  • Water and Waste Water Management
  • The Indian Ministry of Water Resources plans to invest US$50 billion in the water sector in the coming years
  • The Yamuna Action Plan Phase III project for Delhi is approved at an estimated cost of US$276 million
  • Sanitation
  • About 67% of the rural population continues to defecate in the open, and India accounts for about 50% of the world’s open defecation
  • The Government of India and the World Bank have signed a US$500 million credit for the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) project in the Indian states of Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh
4. Smart Transportation: The Government of India has set ambitious targets of developing public transportation system to support the ever growing urban populace. Green Transport
  • The Government of India has approved a US$4.13 billion plan to spur electric and hybrid vehicle production by setting an ambitious target of 6 million vehicles by 2020
  • Electric vehicle charging stations in all urban areas and along all state and national highways by 2027 Railways
  • Metro: Ministry of Urban Development plans to invest more than US$20 billion on the metro rail projects in coming years
  • High Speed Rail: The proposed 534 km Mumbai-Ahmedabad high speed rail project will have an investment of around US$10.5 billion
  • Monorail: India’s first monorail project at Mumbai will cost around US$500 million, of which US$183 million has been spent on phase I
5. Smart IT & Communications: Information and Communications Technology
  • Cloud computing will evolve into a US$4.5 billion market in India by 2016
  • Broadband connections to 175 million users by 2017
Security and Surveillance
  • Under the flagship “Safe City” project, the Union Ministry proposes US$333 million to make seven big cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore and Hyderabad) to focus on technological advancement rather than manpower Disaster Management
  • The Government of India and World Bank signed US$236 million agreement for reducing disaster risks in coastal villages of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry
6. Smart Buildings:
  • India is expected to emerge as the world’s 3rd largest construction market by 2020, by adding 11.5 million homes every year
  • The Intelligent Building Management Systems market is around US$621 million and is expected to reach US$1,891 million by 2016
  • Smart Buildings will save up to 30% of water usage, 40% of energy usage and reduction of building maintenance costs by 10 to 30%
7. Smart Health Hospitals
  • Health budget up by 27% in FY 2014-15 to US$5.26 billion, with special focus on improving affordable healthcare for all
  • To establish six new AIIMS like institutes and 12 government medical colleges in the country
  • Accessible, affordable and effective healthcare system for 1.2+ billion citizens
Insurance
  • FDI limit in the insurance sector increased to 49% from 26%
  • Insurance industry has potential to reach US$1 trillion by 2020
Medical Devices
  • Indian medical devices market to reach US$11 billion by 2023
  • 100% FDI allowed in the medical devices sector under the automatic route
  • Wellness
  • Indian wellness industry is expected to reach around US$16.65 billion by 2015
8. Smart Education: The Government of India has allocated US$13.95 billion in the Union Budget 2014-15 for the education sector, up by 12.3% from the previous year.
  • Budget has allocated US$78.5 million to set-up five new IITs and five new IIMs
  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development plans to have 1,000 private universities for producing trained manpower to meet services and industry requirements
  • 100% FDI allowed in the education sector
  • India’s online education market size expected to be US$40 billion by 2017

MRT System in India


India is well on its way to create a world-class MRT system as an integral part of community infrastructure development in the country, reports Ar. Apurva Bose Dutta.

Growing cities, growing population and growing traffic has invariably called for a shift from private modes of conveyance to public transport. A glance at the world's developing nations indicates that well planned Mass Rapid Transit Systems (MRTS) exist successfully. India (like many other developing countries) however has lagged behind though its first metro, the Kolkata Metro, started working almost 25 years ago. The reasons could be attributed to lack of funds planning as is known that such projects require huge capital investments, a long gestation period and complex technology. Other reasons could include the lack of integration between various systems of mass transportation and the absence of comprehensive traffic and transportation planning. While researches show that the ideal modal share of public transport should be around 70%, however it is in tune to only 35%–40% in India's metro cities. India is looking to create a world class infrastructure with its existent Kolkata and Delhi Metros with the addition of Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, Jaipur, and Kochi metros in the next few years while proposals for MRTS for Pune, Chandigarh, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Ludhiana, Bhopal, Indore and Faridabad are being chalked out.

Key Considerations for MRTS

A metro model for a county would have to depend on its logistics, financial resources and should avoid aping a western modern blindly, rather should concentrate on learning from its shortcomings.

Ar. Jit Kumar Gupta, renowned urban planner states that the planning, construction, designing and management of metros require extensive data, detailed surveys, study of economic structure, profile of settlement topography, travel preference, major traffic corridors etc. He recommends the use of technology that is available within the country or that can be developed since ultimately the system needs to be made self-reliant and self-contained to minimise O&M (operations & maintenance) cost. He advises that technology with low initial cost but with high O & M cost should be avoided. M Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, General Manager, Hyderabad Metro Rail adds that during construction time technicalities like proper hoarding, guided traffic signs and safety barriers are also kept in mind.

Cost Factors

Metro projects are meant to cater to cities with more than four million population and the costs in these cases are related to areas which are proposed to serve underground, elevated or at grade alignment. Larger the underground and elevated proposal, larger shall be the cost involved.

Funding process is done through the PPP model (Public-Private Partnership) as in Hyderabad and Mumbaior byDMRC model by the state or the central government as in Bengaluru, Chennai and Kolkata. Mr Reddy is of the opinion that the correct funding process is the PPP model since otherwise if the government has to take up the funding, it would involve additional taxes on people and a lot of subsidies from other organisations which would become a huge burden on the government. He adds, "Generally PPP model is also not financially viable because we can't get all the money from fair box collection. Hence in 1991, the concept of LPG (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation) was introduced which is an encouragement for private investors like infrastructure developers. Under this, the viability gap funding scheme caters to 60% cost borne by the private investor and upto 40% borne by the government in terms of grants. The Hyderabad Metro is the first metro to be on PPP mode. Though Mumbai is also on the PPP mode but they haven't taken the viability gap fund."

Ar Gupta feels that the high cost justification of metros has its genesis in its very high carrying capacity of passengers at a very high speed with minimum pollution. He states, "Metros are known to serve the old, congested and thickly built up areas where normal traffic poses greatest challenges due to location of major commercial markets, traffic nodes and residential areas. They are known to provide travel at a very affordable cost." He also recommends the need of a SPV to realise the project due to the huge capital costs involved and adds, "Government could participate through equity or meeting one time viability gap financing after detailed evaluation. For funding metros the government should provide infrastructure but the operating cost and cost of rolling stock must be met by users and beneficiaries. Where private players of repute are involved, the project could be sealed with private participation based on detailed conditions and period of concession specified. Land will be a major issue in realising the project for which the involvement of parastatal agencies will be critical. Sale of air space, advertisement rights, contribution of major commercial whole sale markets which generate huge volume of traffic, levying of external development charges on builders and promoters and a dedicated fund for MRTS can aid in the funding."

The Advantages And Disadvantages

A cheap mode of transport, the MRTS helps in low energy consumption, is eco-friendly (runs on electricity, thus minimising air and sound pollution), averts the number of accidents, is efficient in terms of space occupancy and provides comfort with ultra modern coaches and modern systems like automatic ticketing, advanced signalling systems, automatic train protection system and integrated security systems. Services like ATMs, food outlets, cafés and convenience stores at these stations make the journey more fruitful. Also such stations lead to nearby economic development.

The international standard for MRTS with a maximum speed of 80kmph and average speed of around 34kmph helps in saving of time. Adds Ar Gupta, "With proper designing, the peak hour capacity could be rated at 3-4 lakhs passengers per hour."

Mr Reddy points out that the only disadvantage of metros is the slight congestion on roads at the time of construction which has to be taken care of while Ar Gupta indicates the cost factor as the disadvantage, the solution for which is to integrate metros with others systems considering the volume, structure, availability of space and resources for traffic and transportation.

MRTS in the Country

Kolkata Metro


The only metro service in the country functioning directly under the Indian Railways, the foundation for this was laid as early as 1972. Delays due to non-availability of sufficient funds, shifting of underground utilities, court injunctions and irregular supply of vital materials led to the commencement of services being pushed to 1984, after which progressive construction followed leading to the completion of the services of the entire stretch in 2005.

Kolkata faced a transport problem with only 8% of the land being available for road transport (negligible as compared to the 25%–30% available in other cities) thus diminishing scope for increasing the existing road area. Thus an underground route was envisaged with five rapid transit lines comprising a route length of 97.5 km. While the phase 1 of the North South (NS) axis commenced its services in 1995, Phase 2 and Phase 3 were recently opened in 2009 and 2010 respectively.

The metro has been quite a hit with the residents in Kolkata considering the number of passengers which has expansively increased in the past years.

Large scale expansion projects (covering 87 kms) have now been planned and in its modernisation programme, the existing metro stations would undergo renovation and introduce State-of-the-Art Automatic Fare Collection, Passenger Control system with Radio Frequency Identification based Flap Gates, Integrated Security System, new air-conditioned rakes and Automatic Signalling system.

Delhi Metro


The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was established to build a metro in two phases serving Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad. While the first phase covering 65.11km was opened in 2002 the second phase of 125km was recently completed. The first railway project in the world to be registered for carbon credits by the United Nations, the Delhi Metro achieved this by saving power by using regenerative brakes in the trains, and reduced carbon emissions. The Metro has been designed such that it can be integrated with other public transport. DMRC has also partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps.


The Rapid Metro Rail Gurgaon (to be completed by 2013) is an under–construction rapid transit system in Gurgaon, linked with the Delhi Metro. As part of phase 2, subway facilities in all the underground metro stations and bicycle rentals in some are being provided.

The popular Delhi Airport Metro Express rail from the Indira Gandhi International Airport to the city centre takes less than 20 minutes as opposed to one hour by road. Its LCD screens equipped coaches imported from Spain are entirely different from the trains on this line and have in-built noise reduction features, padded fabric seats and provide flight information for convenience of air travellers. The trains are fitted with an event recorder which can withstand high levels of temperature and impact.The metro has been promoted as an integral part of community infrastructure, and community artwork depicting the local way of life at the stations in the form of decorative murals, panels and a gallery showcasing artwork and handicrafts from across India.


The Delhi Metro though plagued by controversies in the form of technical snags, overcrowding and accidents at the construction sites has proved as a model for the other metros in the country to follow. Phases 3 and 4 will expand the total journey to 413.8km and are scheduled to open in 2016 and 2020 respectively. With such a great pace of work, the Delhi metro will soon become one of the fastest expanding metro networks in the world.

Mumbai Metro

Mumbai's existing Suburban Railway and BEST bus system have not been able to compete with the rapid population growth. The Mumbai MRTS is going to see a completion of the first phase {a partnership between Mumbai Metro politan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) and Reliance Infrastructure and Veolia Transport (France)} in 2012 and will entail a 12 km elevated metro with 12 stations enroute. Mumbai Metro One Private Limited is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) to implement this corridor.

While the Suburban Railways provide a NS connect, this corridor will provide the relief in the East West (EW) connectivity, covering the journey in 21 minutes. Phase 2 and Phase 3 would be totalling to a length of 146 km. Plans are on for a nine-line network by 2021 in its three phases of development costing Rs.36,000 crore.


Skywalks have also been provided to connect the metro and suburban railways stations. The air conditioned coaches that are being imported from China with a 1500 accommodation capacity each, will feature an advanced passenger-driver communication system.

Right from the construction stage, initiatives have been on to make the Mumbai Metro Asia's first green metro. In order to get the best hands on experience, a number of executives were recently sent to China and South Korea to gain some hands-on experience in managing a metro system.

Bengaluru Metro

Though a MRTS has been in consideration for long in the Garden City, the foundation stone was finally laid in 2006. Being operated by the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL), a detailed project report of two double line corridors with a total length of 33 km (elevated and underground) with 32 stations has been prepared by DMRC and RITES, the general consultants for the project: EW and NS corridors as part of Phase I of the project which is estimated to complete by 2013. The travel time from end to end on the EW corridor will be 33 minutes, and on the NS corridor will be 28 minutes. The second phase comprising 51km would involve the extension of both the first two lines and the construction of an additional line.


While the stations are contemporary keeping in mind Bengaluru's erstwhile architecture and materials, there have been competitions floated for developing communication concepts for the interior space of some stations too.

Though at present 43 stations are being constructed which would get completed by 2015 but the DBR (Design Basis report) issued by BMRCL shows an approval for 162 stations which means that in future, there would be tributaries on the NS and EW corridors. The only complaint that could possibly be related to this metro is the lack of transparency and the shirking of public involvement in the project.

Chennai Metro


Chennai has already a well established suburban railway network; however with no connectivity to Central and South Chennai, a MRTS was planned. The Chennai MRTS being an elevated line of the urban mass transit system was completed in 2007 and was designed as an elevated extension of the Suburban Network. It was not exactly a Metro System since the trains were normal EMU's (Electric Multiple Units) without automatic doors. Phase 2 and Phase 3 are presently under construction. Due to poor maintenance, lack of security and no connectivity options with other transit systems, the MRTS has been quite unpopular leading to a lower ridership.

To overcome this lapse in MRTS, the Metro was conceptualised and hence the Chennai Metro is being constructed simultaneously. With the physical works in process, the phase 1 is going to be completed by 2014–2015. Two corridors with a total of 45km and 32 stations have been planned in which 19 would be underground and 12 would be elevated. The developers, Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL) have appointed DMRC as the Prime Consultant for Phase 1 of the project. The Chennai Metro seems the most expensive considering the rising and dropping costs over the years.

The MRTS operated by the Southern Railway is proposed to be taken over by CMRL so as to bring all the elevated and underground tracks under one organisation.

Hyderabad Metro


Spanning over 71km, the phase 1 would include three traffic corridors covering a total of 72 km and 66 stations. A completely elevated system, the detailed project reports and traffic survey reports are being prepared by DMRC. Designed to cater to 50,000 people in one hour in one direction for Corridors I and III and 35,000 for Corridor II, the cost of the project is Rs.12,132 crores. Hyderabad Metro Rail Ltd (HMR) is the SPV set to look after the project which has been allotted to L&T in PPP mode.

Sadly, the Hyderabad MRTS which is the country's first two-track elevated city transit system, has been much delayed since 2008 when the contract was awarded to Maytas Metro Ltd after which fresh bids had to be invited. Also, more recently questions on the feasibility of the Secunderabad-Hi-Tec City Corridor from an engineering point of view have risen. Discussions are umpteen about the metro rail set to throw the traffic and city life out of gear by acquiring thousands of private properties. With the pre- project activities in full swing, the physical work is going to start in October 2011 and the HMR is confident that by 2015 the entire project would finish.


The travel time for the metro rail is 45 minutes for Corridor I, 22 minutes for Corridor II and 39 minutes for Corridor III. The metro stations are being designed keeping the local architecture in mind. The Metro that will rest on massive concrete pillars along the central median of the roads will prove a boon for the city's MMTS (Multi-modal Transport System) which is collapsing under the burgeoning population and has slower speed. It is also being hoped that the enormous material requirement of the metro will result in establishment of many ancillary industries and machinery manufacturing and servicing units.

The Future

MRTS is the best way to decongest traffic. However, a number of considerations should be kept in mind in order to run a successful MRTS. "Viability of metro projects depend upon correct defining of traffic corridors, technology adapted, availability of land, volume of traffic carried, capacity utilisation and acceptance of the mode by the commuters," Ar Gupta maintains.

Conclusively, transport needs to be made an integral part of urban design/master plan of the city as it cannot be delineated to a separate entity. A multi-modal transportation system would ensure the use of MRTS to its best potential.


The uncertainty about MRTS, which has plagued the importance of such systems in India seems to be resolving. Though the Kolkata metro was designed without a rule book and the Delhi Metro was designed on international norms but now India has a set of rules being adopted for metro constructions. The National Mass Transit and Training Research Institute (NMTTRI) in Mumbai (established by MMRDA), is one of its kinds in Asia imparting training and research on mass transit systems. The annual training courses cater to key issues like Public Transport Security, Safety and Emergency/Disaster Management, Noise Pollution & Abatement Measures for Urban Transportation, Integrated Ticketing, seamless Travel across Modes and Intelligent Transportation System.

The MetroRail Asia – Asia's premier rail event (with a special focus on India) proves to be a high-value networking and knowledge-sharing of key metro authorities and operators with discussions over India's extensive metro growth. In its third year now, this year it is being organised in Delhi from 8-10 November.

NBMCW October 2011